Citations provide the information necessary for readers to identify and retrieve each source you use. When you use someone else's words or ideas in your papers, you should create Text citations (within the paper) and References Cited citations (at the end of the paper). Each Text citation should lead to a References Cited citation, and each References Cited citation should come from an Text citation.
Use the American Anthropological Association Guide to Chicago Style to help you cite your sources.
Place citations in parentheses and include the last names of the author(s) and the source's year of publication:
- One author: Last Name Year of Publication (Anderson 2018)
- Two authors: Last Name and Last Name Year of Publication (Anderson and Beauchesne 2018)
- Three authors: Last Name, Last Name, and Last Name Year of Publication (Anderson, Beauchesne, and Chenoweth 2018)
- Four or more authors: Last Name et al. Year of Publication (Anderson et al. 2018)
When you're quoting from a source, add the page number from which you're quoting to the above template. If your quote is over two pages, include both pages:
- Last Name(s) Year of Publication, Page Number (Anderson 2018, 41)
- Last Name(s) Year of Publication, Page Number-Page Number (Anderson, Beauchesne, and Wellman 2018, 40-41)
Include every source cited in the text and no others, listed alphabetically by author last name.
Journal Article Citations
Core Elements: Author/s, year of publication. "Article Title." Journal Name Issue Number (in italics): page number-page number. doi (digital object identifier) or URL
Article Example: Beauchesne, Patrick, and Sabrina C. Agarwal .2017. "A Multi-Method Assessment of Bone Maintenance and Loss in an Imperial Roman Population: Implications for Future Studies of Age-Related Bone Loss in the Past." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 164: 41-61. https://0-doi-org.wizard.umd.umich.edu/10.1002/ajpa.23256
e-Book or Book
Core Elements: Author/s, year of publication. Title of Book (in italics). Place of Publication: Publisher.(if print) OR doi (digital object identifier) or URL (if ebook)
e-Book Example: Bates, Lynsey A., John Chenoweth, and James A. Delle, 2016. Archaeologies of Slavery and Freedom in the Caribbean: Exploring the Spaces in Between. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.wizard.umd.umich.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=1368103&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Print Book Example: Bates, Lynsey A., John Chenoweth, and James A. Delle, 2016. Archaeologies of Slavery and Freedom in the Caribbean: Exploring the Spaces in Between. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
e-Book Chapter Example: Argawal, Sabrina C., and Patrick Beauchesne, 2011. "It Is Not Carved In Bone: Development and Plasticity of the Aged Skeleton." Hobokken: Wiley-Blackwell. In Social Bioarchaeology, edited by Sabrina C. Argawal and Bonnie A. Glencross, 312-322. https://0-doi-org. wizard.umich.edu/10.1002/9781444390537
Core Elements: Presenter or Director, Year. "Title of Video (in quotations)". Date filmed or date posted. Video. URL.
Streaming Video Example: Bouman, Katie. "How to Take a Picture of Black Hole." November 2016. Video. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like