Citations provide the information necessary for readers to identify and retrieve each source you use. When you use someone else's words or ideas in your papers, you should create an In-text citation within your paper and a References List citation at the end of the paper. Each In-text citation should lead to a References List citation, and each References List citation should come from an In-text citation.
Use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) (print format) and/or the Concise APA Handbook: 7th Edition (ebook format) to correctly cite your sources and format your research papers.
Help from the American Psychological Association
Use the American Psychological Association's APA Style website for help with formatting your citations and your paper:
In the text, references to the literature should be cited by author's surname followed by year of publication. If there are multiple citations, present them chronologically:
. . . analysis by Ward (2001) reveal . . .
. . . studies by Corner and Richtsmeier (2004) reveal . . .
. . . studies by Little et al. (1993) reveal . . .
. . . an earlier report (Hutchinson, 1999) . . .
. . . earlier reports (Arriaza et al., 2000; Paoli et al., 2002; Ross, 2003) . . .
When references are made to more than one paper by the same author published in the same year, they should be designated in the text as (Benefit and McCrossin, 1993a,b) and in the Literature Cited as follows:
Benefit BR, McCrossin ML. 1993a. New Kenyapithecus postcrania and other primate fossils from Maboko Island, Kenya [abstract]. Am J Phys Anthropol Suppl 16:55–56.
Benefit BR, McCrossin ML. 1993b. On the lacrimal fossa of Cercopithecinae, with special reference to cladistic analysis of Old World monkey relationships. Folia Primatol 60:133–145.
Your Literature List should follow the formatting of those in articles published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (except for the double columns). Your list of sources must be arranged alphabetically, not chronologically, by author's or authors' surname(s) in the following style: Author's name (or names), year of publication, complete title, volume, and inclusive pages as follows:
Trinkaus E, Churchill SE, Ruff CB. 1994. Postcranial robusticity in Homo . II: humeral bilateral asymmetry and bone plasticity. Am J Phys Anthropol 93:1–34.
Bogin B. 2001. The growth of humanity. New York: Wiley-Liss.
Gruner O. 1993. Identification of skulls: A historical review and practical applications. In: Iscan MY, Helmer RP, editors. Forensic analysis of the skull. New York: Wiley-Liss. p 29–45.
Abbreviations of journal titles should follow those used in Index Medicus, available via PubMed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/journals.