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HIST 3695 - American City

Professor Georgina Hickey's American City Course (online) HIST 3695

Analyzing your sources: Are your sources CRAAP?

Are your sources appropriate for university-level research? Ask questions about your sources when you're deciding whether or not to use them for your research assignments:

Currency: The timeliness of the information 

  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Has it been updated?
  • Do you need the most current, up-to-date information on your topic?

RelevanceThe information meets your assignment needs 

  • Does the source meet your assignment requirements?
  • Does the information directly relate to your topic?
  • Does it help you answer questions?
  • Have you looked at other sources to find the best one?

Authority: The source of the information 

  • Who is the author or publisher?
  • Are they qualified to write about this area?
  • If it's a website, what does the URL say about the source, i.e. .com .edu .gov .org?

Accuracy: The reliability and correctness of the information 

  • Is the information supported by citations or other evidence?
  • Can you verify the information with another source?
  • Is the author or publisher biased or unbiased? 

Purpose: The reason the information exists

  • What is the purpose of the information? To inform, sell, persuade, or entertain?
  • Is the information given a fact or an opinion?
  • Is the author or publisher biased or unbiased?
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