Citations provide the information necessary for readers to identify and retrieve each source you use. When you use someone else's words or ideas in your papers, you should create Text citations or footnotes (within the paper) and References Cited citations (at the end of the paper). Each Text citation or footnote should lead to a References Cited citation, and each References Cited citation should come from an Text citation or footnote.
Place citations in parentheses and include the last names of the author(s) and the source's year of publication:
One author: Last Name Year of Publication (Anderson 2018)
Two authors: Last Name and Last Name Year of Publication (Anderson and Chenoweth 2018)
Three authors: Last Name, Last Name, and Last Name Year of Publication (Anderson, Mills, and Chenoweth 2018)
Four or more authors: Last Name et al. Year of Publication (Anderson et al. 2018)
When you're quoting from a source, add the page number from which you're quoting to the above template. If your quote is over two pages, include both pages:
Last Name(s) Year of Publication, Page Number (Anderson 2018, 41)
Last Name(s) Year of Publication, Page Number-Page Number (Anderson, Mills, and Chenoweth 2018, 40-41)
For articles consulted online, include a DOI or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. If you can't find the DOI, list the name of the database instead of the article URL that appears in your browser's address bar.