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ESCI 301 - Environmental Science

A guide for ENSC 301 students researching environmental topics in the library

ESA Style Examples

Most Biology professors are using the CSE style for formatting references. You can still use the ESA style for this class, if you wish. Below is just a sample of some of items formatted in ESA style that you will probably need for your reference list. More examples can be found in the Literature Cited section of articles in the journal Ecosphere.

This class will follow the style of the Ecological Society of America to create your list of Literature Cited.  Examples of how to construct entries are below. If something is missing from the list, please let me know.


One author

Cody, M. L. 1985. Habitat selection in birds. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Scammon, C. M. 1874. The marine mammals of the northwestern coast of North America and the American whale fishery. Facsimile Edition, 1969, by Manessier Publishing, Riverside, California, USA.

Two or more authors

Sokal, R. R., and F. J. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry. Third edition. W. H. Freeman, New York, New York, USA.

White, P. S., and S. T. A. Pickett. 1985. Ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author

García Márquez, G. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by E. Grossman. Cape, London, UK.

Chapter or other part of a book

Sjögren-Gulve, P., and C. Ray. 1996. Using logistic regression to model metapopulation dynamics: large-scale forestry extirpates the pool frog. Pages 111-127 in D. R. McCullough, editor.  Metapopulations and wildlife conservation. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

Weller, D. W. 2002. Predation on marine mammals. Pages 985-994 in W. Perrin, B. Wursig, and J. G. M. Thewissen, editors. Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

Vaughan, B. 1998. Foreword. Page iii in Y. P. Kalra, editor. Handbook of reference methods for plant analysis. CRC Press, New York, New York, USA.

Book published electronically

If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Pollan, M. 2007. The omnivore’s dilemma: a natural history of four meals. Penguin, New York, New York, USA. Kindle edition.

Journal article

Article in a print journal, with volume numbers

Wilson, B. S. 1992. Tail injuries increase the risk of mortality n free-living lizards (Uta stansburiana). Oceologia 92:145-152.

Strong, D. R., H. K. Kaya, A. V. Whipple, A. L. Child, S. Kraig, M. Bondommo, K. Dyer, and J. L. Maron. 1996. Entomopathogenic nematodes: natural enemies of root-feeding caterpillars on bush lupine. Oceologia 108:167-173.

Article in a print journal, without volume numbers and pages are sequentially numbered from one volume to the next.  (For example, volume 2, number 3 ends on page 455 and volume 2, number 4 begins on page 456.) If volume numbers and pages are not sequentially numbered from one volume to the next, use the format for article in a newspaper or popular magazine, below.

Wilson, B. S., and P. J. Pavel. 1989. Dehydration reduces the endurance running capacity of the lizard Uta stansburiana. Copeia 1989:1052-1056.

Article in a newspaper or popular magazine

Newspaper and magazine articles are commonly omitted from the Literature Cited in Ecological Society of America publications. However, the following examples show versions of the citations you can use for your assignment. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.

Article in a print newspaper or magazine

Trivedi, B. P. 2011. The wipeout gene. Scientific American. 305(5):68-75.

Article in an online newspaper or magazine

Trivedi, B. P. 2011. The wipeout gene. Scientific American. Retrieved October 26, 2011, from

Dissertation or thesis

Tella, J. L. Ecological constraints, costs and benefits of coloniality in the lesser kestrel. Dissertation. University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Paper or poster presented at a meeting or conference

Cook, J. E. 2011. Understory turnover and species disappearance in second growth forests – patterns across three spatial scales. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Austin, Texas, USA.


FishBase. 2010. Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis Ahl, 1937 – Lemon tetra. Retrieved October 26, 2011, from

[Use the date that the article was last modified (i.e., 06 October 2010 becomes 2010).]

R Development Core Team. 2006. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. (http://www.


SAS Institute. 1999. SAS Version 8.0. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA.

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